EJMCR. 2018; 2(January 2018): 9-11

Oral melanosis and severe periodontitis in toombak users: a case report

Authors: Badr Abdullah Al-Tayar, Mon Mon Tin-Oo, Mohd Zulkarnian Sinor, Mohamed Hussein Abdikarim, Mohammed Sultan Al-ak'hali.

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Toombak is a traditional type of smokeless tobacco used by people in Yemen, especially in Dawan Valley, Hadramout Province, Yemen. Smokeless tobacco use may be considered as a predisposing risk factor for several oral diseases. Case presentation: This paper presents two cases. The first is that of a 27-year-old male toombak user with severe periodontitis and oral melanosis. The second case is that of a 44-year-old male toombak user with oral hypermelanosis. The patient was subjected to scaling and polishing. Quit toombak counseling was conducted, and instruction was given to the patient about the adverse effects of toombak usage. Conclusion: Oral tissues are severely affected by toombak usage. Thus, comprehensive toombak prevention programs should be implemented to reduce toombak-associated diseases.

Keywords:
Toombak, smokeless tobacco, melanosis, periodontitis, case report.


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Oral melanosis and severe periodontitis in toombak users: a case report


Authors
Badr Abdullah Al-Tayar
Community Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Health Campus, 16150, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia
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Mon Mon Tin-Oo
Dental Public Health, School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Health Campus, 16150, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia
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Mohd Zulkarnian Sinor
Dental Public Health, School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Health Campus, 16150, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia
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Mohamed Hussein Abdikarim
3Biomedicine Program, School of Health Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Health Campus, 16150, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia
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Mohammed Sultan Al-ak'hali
Faculty of Dentistry, Jazan University, Saudi Arabia
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Correspondence to:
Badr Abdullah Al-Tayar. Badr Abdullah Al-Tayar, Community Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Health Campus, 16150, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia; bader2221@windowslive.com

Publication history
Published online 01 Jan 1970
Received 12 Sep 2017
Accepted 16 Oct 2017
Revised 29 Oct 2017
Published in print 20 Feb 2018

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Pubmed Style

Al-Tayar BA, Tin-Oo MM, Sinor MZ, Abdikarim MH, Al-akhali MS. Oral melanosis and severe periodontitis in toombak users: a case report. EJMCR. 2018; 2(January 2018): 9-11. doi:10.24911/ejmcr/1/35


Web Style

Al-Tayar BA, Tin-Oo MM, Sinor MZ, Abdikarim MH, Al-akhali MS. Oral melanosis and severe periodontitis in toombak users: a case report. http://www.ejmcr.com/?mno=277685 [Access: October 18, 2018]. doi:10.24911/ejmcr/1/35


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Al-Tayar BA, Tin-Oo MM, Sinor MZ, Abdikarim MH, Al-akhali MS. Oral melanosis and severe periodontitis in toombak users: a case report. EJMCR. 2018; 2(January 2018): 9-11. doi:10.24911/ejmcr/1/35


Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Al-Tayar BA, Tin-Oo MM, Sinor MZ, Abdikarim MH, Al-akhali MS. Oral melanosis and severe periodontitis in toombak users: a case report. EJMCR. (2018), [cited October 18, 2018]; 2(January 2018): 9-11. doi:10.24911/ejmcr/1/35


Harvard Style

Al-Tayar, B. A., Tin-Oo, M. M., Sinor, M. Z., Abdikarim, M. H. & Al-akhali, M. S. (2018) Oral melanosis and severe periodontitis in toombak users: a case report. EJMCR, 2 (January 2018), 9-11. doi:10.24911/ejmcr/1/35


Turabian Style

Al-Tayar, Badr Abdullah, Mon Mon Tin-Oo, Mohd Zulkarnian Sinor, Mohamed Hussein Abdikarim, and Mohammed Sultan Al-akhali. 2018. Oral melanosis and severe periodontitis in toombak users: a case report. European Journal of Medical Case Reports, 2 (January 2018), 9-11. doi:10.24911/ejmcr/1/35


Chicago Style

Al-Tayar, Badr Abdullah, Mon Mon Tin-Oo, Mohd Zulkarnian Sinor, Mohamed Hussein Abdikarim, and Mohammed Sultan Al-akhali. "Oral melanosis and severe periodontitis in toombak users: a case report." European Journal of Medical Case Reports 2 (2018), 9-11. doi:10.24911/ejmcr/1/35


MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Al-Tayar, Badr Abdullah, Mon Mon Tin-Oo, Mohd Zulkarnian Sinor, Mohamed Hussein Abdikarim, and Mohammed Sultan Al-akhali. "Oral melanosis and severe periodontitis in toombak users: a case report." European Journal of Medical Case Reports 2.January 2018 (2018), 9-11. Print. doi:10.24911/ejmcr/1/35


APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Al-Tayar, B. A., Tin-Oo, M. M., Sinor, M. Z., Abdikarim, M. H. & Al-akhali, M. S. (2018) Oral melanosis and severe periodontitis in toombak users: a case report. European Journal of Medical Case Reports, 2 (January 2018), 9-11. doi:10.24911/ejmcr/1/35


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